Syntax and identifiers

This course provides several small examples. To understand them, you need to know a few basics, which are explained below.

Keywords & Identifiers

Keywords of the SQL language and SQL functions always occur in capital letters in these examples.

In contrast, all identifiersin our examples, i.e. the names of tables, columns etc. are written in lower case .

SELECT id,       
  FROM tasks

Internally, identifiers that are written without quotation marks as delimiters are always converted to uppercase. We can see this, for example, in the column headers for queries. If the identifiers are specified with quotation marks, which we avoid in our examples, then the upper and lower case is adopted 1:1. Example

SELECT id,       
       title as "Title"
  FROM tasks


Pseudocode is program code that is not used for machine interpretation, but merely to illustrate a paradigm or algorithm. Mostly it resembles higher programming languages mixed with natural language and mathematical notation.

Wikipedia, Pseudocode

We use pseudocode in some places to explain the syntax of SQL. The elements in angle brackets are not part of the syntax but stand as placeholders for the described items. These are explained further in the text.

SELECT <Spalten> FROM <Tabellenname>